Monday, May 25, 2020
Literature is a global art that throughout many languages, cultures, and as well as the course of time, is open to a magnitude of perspectives and opinions, ranging from literary criticisms written by literary scholars to school students undertaking VCE. From the time Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad was published in 1899 the novel has been held under considerable scrutiny as many interpretations have been developed over the novels true intent as well as the overall message portrayed within. Chinua AchebeÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"An Image of AfricaÃ¢â¬ is a well-known criticism on Heart of Darkness that focuses on a Post-Colonial perspective to describe the nature of the novel. Jeremy HawthornÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Women of Heart of DarknessÃ¢â¬ is another well-known criticismÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Achebe also criticises ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of language for his African characters as dehumanising in its attempt to strip the characters of respectable voices by instead describing t heir language as Ã¢â¬Å"animalistic gruntsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"criesÃ¢â¬ . The few instances within the novel where an African character speaks English are described by Achebe as deliberate in their insinuation that the African people are unintelligent and illiterate. Achebe again contrasts ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s use of Africa as a place of Ã¢â¬Å"dehumanisationÃ¢â¬ as alienating the African people rather than inspiring inhumanity in the white colonialists that have travelled there. While many readers would agree with the failed attempt at the exploration of racism, one must contend that writing about something does not necessarily remove it from criticism and as such when reading Heart of Darkness one can gather the inklings of prejudice weaved within the text by an author who is known for racist values. While the text is deserving of appreciation, as for some it is deemed a literary masterpiece, one cannot ignore the racist undertones of the novel as it is clear that Conrad has prejud ices towards Africa and her people and that these feelings were intertwined into the plot. ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s main characters all have some racist values ranging from blissful ignorance to downright hatred to the African people and inShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Joseph Conrad s Heart Of Darkness 1396 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesShelly Pyakurel Ellen Stockstill English 4 DC 27 April 2015 Research Paper Heart of Darkness is a novel by Joseph Conrad that centers on Marlow, a man who goes to the Congo for a job opportunity. He meets a man named Kurtz, who is well known by many. Once he gets to the Congo, he sees colonialism first-hand. He sees that the natives of the country were practically enslaved and forced to work under very harsh conditions. The two major characters of the novel are Marlow and Kurtz. There are many minorRead MoreGender Role In Joseph ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s Heart of Darkness Essay1430 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGender Role In Joseph ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s Heart of Darkness For the most part people who read Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad may feel that the novella is strictly a story of exploration and racial discrimination. But to Johanna Smith who wrote Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢Too Beautiful AltogetherÃ¢â¬â¢: Ideologies of Gender and Empire in Heart of DarknessÃ¢â¬ it is much more than that. Johanna Smith along with Wallace Watson and Rita A. Bergenholtz agree that throughout Heart of Darkness there are tones of gender prejudice, but the wayRead MoreMary Shelley s Frankenstein, And Joseph Conrad s The Heart Of Darkness1498 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIt is quite obvious that both Mary ShellyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Frankenstein,Ã¢â¬ and Joseph ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Heart of DarknessÃ¢â¬ are horror stories. Oddly enough, Victor Frankenstein and Kurtz die due to result of their own selfish unmoderated behavior. Due to their personal desires for success, they both, truly went mad. Unintentionally they cause their own deaths, and along with it many others to including their own family members. Essentially there is a modern connection with the lack of moral and social advancementsRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 Pages(2006): 1Ã¢â¬â28. 46. Patrick K. OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien and Leandro Prados de la Escosura, Ã¢â¬Å"Agricultural Productivity and European Industrialization, 1890Ã¢â¬â1980,Ã¢â¬ Economic History Review 45, no. 3 (1992): 514Ã¢â¬â536. 47. Moya, Cousins and Strangers, 150Ã¢â¬â153, 266Ã¢â¬â276. Joseph P. Ferrie, Ã¢â¬Å"History Lessons: The End of American Exceptionalism? Mobility in the United States since 1850,Ã¢â¬ Journal of Economic Perspectives 19, no. 3 (2005): 199Ã¢â¬â215 also shows exceptionally high levels 50 Ã¢â¬ ¢ CHAPTER 1 of upward mobility
Thursday, May 14, 2020
The largest group of elements is the transition metals. Here is a look at the location of these elements and their shared properties. What Is a Transition Metal? Of all the groups of elements, the transition metals can be the most confusing to identify because there are different definitions of which elements should be included. According to the IUPAC, a transition metal is any element with a partially filled d electron sub-shell. This describes groups 3 through 12 on the periodic table, although the f-block elements (lanthanides and actinides, below the main body of the periodic table) are also transition metals. The d-block elements are called transition metals, while the lanthanides and actinides are called inner transition metals. The elements are called transition metals because the English chemistry Charles Bury used the term in 1921 to describe the transition series of elements, which referred to the transition from an inner electron layer with a stable group of 8 electrons to one with 18 electrons or the transition from 18 electrons to 32. Location of the Transition MetalsÃ on the Periodic Table The transition elements are located in groups IB to VIIIB of the periodic table. In other words, the transition metals are elements: 21 (scandium) through 29 (copper)39 (yttrium) through 47 (silver)57 (lanthanum) through 79 (gold)89 (actinium) through 112 (copernicium) - which includes the lanthanides and actinides Another way to view it is that the transition metals include the d-block elements, plus many people consider the f-block elements to be a special subset of transition metals. While aluminum, gallium, indium, tin, thallium, lead, bismuth, nihonium, flerovium, moscovium, and livermorium are metals, these basic metals have less metallic character than other metals on the periodic table and tend not to be considered as transition metals. Overview of Transition Metal Properties Because they possess the properties of metals, the transition elements are also known as the transition metals. These elements are very hard, with high melting points and boiling points. Moving from left to right across the periodic table, the five d orbitals become more filled. The d electrons are loosely bound, which contributes to the high electrical conductivity and malleability of the transition elements. The transition elements have low ionization energies. They exhibit a wide range of oxidation states or positively charged forms. The positive oxidation states allow transition elements to form many different ionic and partially ionic compounds. The formation of complexes causes the d orbitals to split into two energy sublevels, which enables many of the complexes to absorb specific frequencies of light. Thus, the complexes form characteristic colored solutions and compounds. Complexation reactions sometimes enhance the relatively low solubility of some compounds. Quick Summary of the Transition MetalÃ Properties Low ionization energiesPositive oxidation statesMultiple oxidation states, since there is a low energy gap between themVery hardExhibit metallic lusterHigh melting pointsHigh boiling pointsHigh electrical conductivityHigh thermal conductivityMalleableForm colored compounds, due to d-d electronic transitionsFive d orbitals become more filled, from left to right on the periodic tableTypically form paramagnetic compounds because of the unpaired d electronsTypically exhibit high catalytic activity
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
World War I was a devastating time for the entire world, both economically and physically. Even more devastating than the physical destruction and economic losses were the experiences of the soldiers fighting this gruesome war, and its effects on them. According to Wilfred OwenÃ¢â¬â¢s poems, Vera BrittainÃ¢â¬â¢s account, and Erich RemarqueÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, the warfareÃ¢â¬â¢s conditions and nature greatly affected these men in various ways. Not only did they suffer from physical losses, such as death of beloved ones, separation from families, and bodily injuries, they also suffered psychologically due to extensive trauma. The Ã¢â¬Å"lost generationÃ¢â¬ suffered immensely from post-traumatic stress, and lost the ability to live normal lives, along with their willpower and strength. They may have survived, but they were living corpses. The war turned them into living corpses because of the trauma and torture they endured on the battlefront. The World War I poems are great accounts to understand the experiences of soldiers during the war. These war poets describe the soldiersÃ¢â¬â¢ horrific and traumatic experiences. Wilfred OwenÃ¢â¬â¢s poem entitled Ã¢â¬Å"DisabledÃ¢â¬ seems to be describing a soldier waiting for the end of a day, but in actuality, the narrator is reminiscing about that past and waiting for the end of a lifetime. The poem begins with a bleak description of the soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s physical state. Ã¢â¬Å"Legless, sewn short at elbowÃ¢â¬ (Owen, 3). The soldier has lost his legs, and he is sitting in a wheelchair wearing a leglessShow MoreRelatedMilitarism, Nationalism, And The Start Of The Alliance System1360 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesintroduction of new weapon technology and trench warfare caused an unimaginable amounts of destruction and deaths all over the content of Europe where most of the fighting took place. By the time the Great War had ended in 1918, more than 9 million soldiers had been killed and 21 million more injured. Many historians of the 20th Century blame the generals of the Great War for the massive death toll, they lacked the ability to adapt to the new warfare tactics and the horrifying modern weaponry. Read MoreThe Wars At The End Of The Cold War1617 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe wars at the end of the Cold War and the beginning of the new century are entirely different from the other ones, mainly since September 11th, 2011. The nature of the strategic environment of the warfare has undergone a series of transformations because of the globalization, technology, economic relationships, and cultural changes. They influence the war and create an environment characterized as volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous (VUCA). This new environment has shifted the conventionalRead MoreOn July 28, 1914 World War I Commenced, Putting The Allies1525 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesof this through the interception of the Zimmerman telegraph, they entered into the war on the Alli es side. Although the vast amount of countries involved in this war may seem to be the reason it was so harsh, the truth lies in the fact that trench warfare and advanced weaponry caused World War I to be a disastrous, longer than expected fight. Looking back at history, World War I was a short war compared to others, even those just fought in Europe. However, the war ended with a terrifying fortyRead MoreWorld War I Was A War1743 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe inhumane methods of killing people were used, and the true horrors of war were revealed through new technology. The most impactful thing on the war has to be trenches. Trench warfare did many things: Prolonged the war, destroyed nature, and caused many soldiers to become sick. It is safe to say that trench warfare prolonged the war because people would just sit in the trenches and wait for attacks. The trenches were like headquarters for them because they ate, slept, and fought from there. WithRead MoreAn Extract From Fallen Soldiers : Reshaping The Memory Of The Wars1046 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages1990. Source B Soldiers in the trenches of Passchendaele, 1917 Source C Extract from a letter from British soldier, Robert Graves, to a friend, May 1915. Source D Extract from How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa by Joshua S. Goldstein, 2001 Source E Extract form the diary of Miss G.M West, a middle class woman who enrolled as a policewoman in 1916. Describe the early attitudes of British and German soldiers to the war. Use Source A and your ownRead MoreClausewitz On Nature And Character Of War1486 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesClausewitz on Nature and Character of War There are no universal theories to explain the true nature and character of war, and any war theories are not a fact or absolute truth. All strategic principles are dynamic and contextual, so Ã¢â¬Å"every age had its own kind of war, its own limiting conditions, and its own peculiar preconceptions.Ã¢â¬ The battlefield environment of the 21st century will be the volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous, and nature of war will be completely different because ofRead More Understanding the Importance of the American Civil War Essays1516 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswho would then migrate northward.? From this quote one can already see two key elements: the idea of slavery as an institutional wrong, and the racism on the part of Northerners. This demonstrates why this war was so hard to explain. If Northerner?s wanted slavery abolished, but were still fearful of coinciding with blacks as freedmen, then why did Northerners choose to fight the rebellious South? A more practical way to view this is by looking at this conflict from an economical and politicalRead MoreCyber Laws in India and their Implications1817 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesImplications Contents Cyber space Ã¢â¬â Nature of threat 2 Growth of Internet user Population 3 The Legal Framework 4 The US and the UK Approaches for Data Protection and Privacy 4 The US 4 The UK 5 IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s Legal Framework Meets Most Requirements 5 Indian IT Act 2000 5 Indian Copyright Act 5 Indian Penal Code 5 Indian Contract Act, 1872 5 IT Act of India 2000 6 Proposed Amendments to the IT Act 8 Other Government Measures 9 Cyber space Ã¢â¬â Nature of threat Existing and potential threatsRead MoreComparison Of Treatments Of Native Americans In The East And West1573 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessettlements away. The Europeans were not the only ones attributing the disease to divine intervention, the natives began to believe their gods had abandoned them which facilitated their conversion to Christianity. The results of this unplanned germ warfare attack on the natives was that for nearly 50 years the early European settlers faced no real challenge from the Indians which enabled them to get a firm footing in the New World. The Revolutionary War around 1776 was largely between the BritishRead MoreThe Demise Of African Prosperity1168 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescontradictory beliefs about the effects of the Transatlantic slave trade on Africa. Thomas argues that the slave trade was beneficial to Africa, while Rodney argues a more negative position, claiming that the unequal trade lead to population loss and warfare. Thornton argues neutrally states that the slave trade Ã¢â¬Å"was simply an internal trade diverted to the Atlantic.Ã¢â¬ Although historians such as Hugh Thomas believe that the Transatlantic provided short-term economic stimulus to Urban Empires, the slave
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Has using the Safewards Model in acute Mental health units improved Client engagement in promoting recovery? Answer: Background and Potential Benefits of Study Background The need to reduce conflict and containment has been a disturbing issue for many years. Many interventions and models have been attempted to solve this issue albeit unworking. The absconding by patients, rule breaking, manual restraint, attitude to containment, compulsory detention and attitude of nurses to patients with mental disorders have been the backdrops against which these models and intervention have been tried. Other researchers have also focused their studies on understanding Safewards Model through aggression, absconding, substance use, medication refusal, suicide, special observations, coerced medication, manual restraint, seclusion and mechanical restraint. The overarching finding from these studies point towards the need for a much stronger model and design a much stronger interventions for the people to utilize. It is upon this backdrop that many researchers have recommended the use of Safewards Model in order to reduce the conflict and containment for effective and smooth recovery process. The researchers have used Safewards Model and subsequently produced various ideas for intervention that clearly appreciates the benefits of this model when used in wards to assist the ward staff decrease levels of containment and conflicts thereby making their wards safer placers. This is because the studies have shown that Safewards interventions have generated a significant decrease in the rate of conflict and reduce the containment rate. The conflict (self-harm, aggression, absconding, self-harm, medication refusal, substance use) and containment (as required medication, seclusion, special observation, coerced intramuscular, manual restraint and secular) put patients and staff at risk of severe harm. The frequency of such events differ across wards, yet there are few explications as to why this is so, alongside a coherent model is really lacking. This essay thus proposes a comprehensive critical systematic review of literature that address the use of Safewards Model in Mental Health to give a detailed explanatory model of these variations, and sketch the implication for the mechanisms for decreasing risks alongside coercion on the inpatient wards to inform the required changes in education, healthcare practice and future research. Professor Len Bowers and colleagues developed the Safewards Model in the United Kingdom. This model particularly scrutinizes events referred to as conflict (events which may threaten staff as well as consumers like self-harm, absconding, suicide and aggression) alongside containment (interventions implemented by staff to avoid a conflict between them and consumers. These may include increased observation, utilization of medication, as well as using restrictive interventions). Conflict and containment events can be categorized together (Bowers 2013). This is because patients that might display one type of the conflict behavior could further display another. The conflict as well as containment can differ substantially between various wards and nationally as well as internationally, and types of methods of containment can further differ significantly. Thus, this Model seeks to offer an explanation on the differing rates of both containment and conflict as well as provide interventions w hich are designed to lessen the risk of the conflict as well as containment incidences taking place. The model has six domains (see appendix (figure 1 and 2)) that are; outside hospital, physical environment, patient community, staff team, regulatory framework, and patient characteristics (Bowers 2013). These 6 domains give rise to flashpoints that are defined as social as well as psychological context emerging out of the features of originating domains, signaling as well as proceeding imminent conflict behavior. Such flashpoints could trigger conflict that might lead to containment. The use of containment could cause conflict. The purpose of this model is to reduce such undesirable interventions (Bowers 2013). The staff interventions can effectively modify these process by decreasing the conflicts-emerging factors: preventing flashpoints from emerging; cutting link between flashpoints and conflict; selecting not to utilize containment; and making sure that containment utilization does not culminate in further conflicts. It is upon this backdrop that this review will be important as the model will be systematically described in detail; and clearly shown how it can be utilized in devising strategies that effectively help promote patient and staffs safety. Potential Benefits (Significance) This study seeks to evaluate whether using the Safewards Model in acute mental health units has improved client engagement in promoting recovery. Answering this research question will have potential implication towards the implementation, modification and even development of new models to boost the client engagement in the recovery promotion among the patients in acute mental health units (Price, Burbery, and Leonard Doyle 2016). If the research finds out that the model has improved consumer engagement, it would be recommended for mental health units as this will be beneficial since it will have helped decrease any form of conflict and restrictive containment methods that only serve to derail the recovery process of the patients in acute mental health units (Price, Burbery, Leonard and Doyle 2016). On the other hand, the research will have potential benefits by identifying some key limitations of Safewards and suggest the required adjustment or modification that will boost its usage for promoting recovery (Parish 2013). The research might also reach a finding that the Model itself is effective as it is but the process of implementation may have not been well understood and hence focus on the ways to improve Safewards for better outcomes (Price, Burbery, Leonard and Doyle 2016). Finally, the study will be of great potential where it reaches a conclusion that Safewards is not the best Model in this context and goes on to recommend the implementation of new Model to substitute Safewards Model (Price, Burbery, Leonard and Doyle 2016). Aim: The real aim is to critically review the literature that addressed the use of the Safewards Model in Mental Health. The comprehensive critical review of literature is done to understand the usefulness of Safewards Model in mental health. To do this, the focus will be on whether the reviewed literature highlight the effectiveness of limitation of this model on the basis of implementation and usage. The success of this model in clinical health will be examined on the basis of whether it has enhanced patient engagement and the corresponding effect of such an engagement to recovery process. This well provide effective recommendations relating to its implementation, modification or a new Model that will help effectively engage patients in acute mental units for better recovery. Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the success of Safewards Model in terms of its ability to engage the patients in acute mental units by looking at how the issues of conflict and containment are either reduced or increased even after the implementation of the Safewards Model. This will be beneficial in informing the future Model or the implementation and modification necessary to make Safewards Model to be more effective (Price, Burbery, Leonard Doyle 2016). By so doing, a recommendation will be offered that will propose the adoption and implementation of the Safewards Model so as to promote consumer engagement and hence better recovery. Research Question Has using the Safewards Model in acute mental health units improved client engagement in promoting recovery? Systematic Critical Review The researcher used the critical review to appraise various articles in the literature. The aim of the critical-review was to validate that the researcher had lengthily investigated the literature as well as critically evaluated the quality of such literature. The critical review extends beyond the mere description to include the analysis degree as well as the conceptual innovation. Unlike traditional literature reviews that merely introduces a topic, summarize the main ideas and providing certain illustrative instance which lacks reliability, critical systematic review guarantees reliability by recording how primary studies were sought as well as selected and how such studies were analyzed to generate their conclusions. It helps the readers to be able to judge whether each of the relevant literature is probably to have been found as well as how the quality of a given study is assessed. The systematic review remains transparent regarding they generate conclusions. This is important b ecause it avoids misrepresentation of knowledge base by evaluating each study to make clear its relevance and quality. It helps confirms that the review authors have taken the necessary steps to decrease distortions and inaccuracies. The systematic review also uses a protocol that sets out how the review is conducted prior to actual review to reduce bias by minimizing the influence the results might have over the being overly influenced by review procedures. The systematic review also entails exhaustive searches to obtain as much as feasible of the relevant study to reduce bias by ensuring that conclusions are never overly influenced by most reachable study. The methods of systematic review are also made explicit to allow users of review to know if they can trust the findings of the review as readers can easily judge how well the review has been undertaken. The systematic review also involves potential users of the systematic review to ensure that the research is relevant by setting advisory cohorts are set up with representation from all user groups. The findings of the systematic review remains solid as the results of sound research are synthesized effectively. This helps generate clear as well as easily reachable messages regarding the reliable evidence existing on a topic. This is done by appraisal of each study and pooling its results which imply that conclusions can be effectively drawn regarding the direction of the evidence in its entirety. Search, Retrieval, and Selection The researcher used the critical review process to search for the relevant articles about Safewards Model. To begin my search, I first identified the key terms and phrases that could help me get the required and relevance articles. Some of the key terms identified were: Safewards Model; Implementation of Safewards Model; Importance of Safewards Model; Success of Safewards Model; Conflicts and Restrictive Containment Application of Safewards Model; and Challenges to Safewards Model Implementation. After this identification of key terms, I brainstormed on specific search engines that could helped me get the required articles. I came up with a list of few search engines including Google, Yahoo and Bing. Further, I selected some data bases that could enable me get the required information and came up with a list of key databases: The York Research Database; PubMed; Cochrane Library; Popline; TOXNET; CINAHL Plus and EMBASE to enable me obtain the relevant articles and retrieved (Goulet, L arue Dumais 2017). The inclusions and exclusion criteria was based on a number of considerations. First, I was looking at the current and updated articles. Based on this criteria, only the peer-reviewed article published between 2010 and 2017 would be included and any article published before 2010 was excluded. The other criteria was based on whether the article was academic article (peer reviewed) journal. Thus once I had gotten an article, I had to check whether it is a peer-reviewed before including it or discarding it. Another inclusion and exclusion criteria was based on the relevance of the article to my topic. I had to read through the conclusion and recommendation sessions of each article to grasp and a glance whether it would help me advance the aim of this study. Only those articles that helped me understood the use, success and importance of Safewards Model were included. Based on the above exclusion and inclsion criteria, I managed to identify only seven key important articles and selected them for the review out of the thirty articles that were retrieved and appraised effectively. The articles then formed the basis for my literature review which then informed the findings and subsequent evidence-based discussion of this paper. Critical Appraisal The tool chosen for this critical appraisal was CASP systematic review checklist. CASP approaches research in three steps: (is the study valid); what are the results; and (iii) are the results useful. Is the study valid? The 1st step is to decide whether the study was not biased via the evaluation of its methodological quality. Various criteria for articles validity are utilized for various kinds of questions. Based on the validity of the article, the appraiser can categorize it within a scale of evidence levels besides degrees of recommendations. What are the results? Where it is decided that the article is valid, we can then proceed to look at results. At this stage, a consideration is made whether the results of the study are important. A consideration of how much uncertainty exist regarding the results, as expressed in terms of p-values, sensitivity analysis and confidence intervals. Are the results useful? After a decision is made that the evidence is valid and significant, the appraiser need to think about how it apples to the study question. The critical appraisal skills avails a basis within which to consider such issues in the explicit and transparent manner. CASP tools ranges from CASP systematic review checklist, CASP randomized controlled trial checklist, CASP diagnostic checklist, CASP economic evaluation checklist, CASP qualitative checklist, CASP case control checklist, CASP cohort study checklist and CASP clinical prediction rule checklist. However, for this critical review of literature, CASP systematic review checklist was chosen. It was chosen since my project was based on a literature review and hence I was convinced it would enable me critically appraise the articles in a systematic manner. The questions asked in the systematic review were also appropriate in helping me arrive at the best articles. The systematic review is also important because unlike the traditional unsystematic and subjective methods of collecting data, analyzing and interpreting results that are marred with issues of bias, and overestimation of value of the study, systematic critical appraisal has a defined method of collecting and analyzing study results to reduce bias. It is a higher level of review which is very important tool for my research. It enabled me effectively evaluate the evidence using clearly formulated topics which utilizes both organized and explicit methods for identifying, selecting as well as critically appraising relevant s tudy. It was also important in helping me to solve the controversies between the conflicting findings and provided a reliable foundation for making a decision on what articles to use. Summary of Outcomes From the critical appraisal, summary of the outcome was established. It was established that of the thirty articles that were retrieved, seven of the articles met the criteria set for the appraisal. These criteria included; relevance, current (published between 2010 and 2017), and peer-reviewed. In terms of relevance, the article would only be included if it directly contributed to the understanding of the problem being studied. For relevance, I was looking for the themes coming from these studies in relation to success, implementation of Seaward Model and the challenges with implementation of the of the Seawards Model. For the peer-reviewed, I chose this criteria because the information would be more credible, valid, and viable and verified because they have been tested and the evidence proven. This will, therefore, help me to have information that can be generalizable to inform the use of this Model. For the timeline or date of publication (2010 to 2017), I chose this because of the need to be current. I was convinced that this timeline captures updated states and these could have corrected errors and omission that could have been made in the ancient studies published before year 2010. These seven articles were, therefore, selected on the basis of this inclusion and exclusion criteria as advanced in the search retrieval and selection section above and reviewed using the critical review method to inform the completion and the final compilation of the current study. The summary of the outcome was given in terms of three common themes: Safewards Model has immensely decreased the conflicts; Safewards have immensely eliminated the use of restrain and rapid tranquilization; and Model is more inclusive. Critical Summary Table Source Research question presented Use of right type of study Design minimize bias Analysis accuracy Conclusion drawn from data and analysis Contribution of study to problem understanding Bowers (2013) The research question well-presented and explanation given why research was needed Interventions and hence RCT used well The design well-chosen and minimized bias Analysis was accurate The conclusion is strictly as per data and analysis The study highly contributed the Safewards Model understanding (Bowers, (2013)) Bowers (2014) The research question well-presented. It explained for research RCT was effectively applied The biased was minimized based on good choice of design The accuracy of analysis was above board The analysis and data well informed the conclusion The source gave more details of Model thereby boosting its understanding Bowers et al (2014) Research question well aligned to need for study The study correctly used the RCT type of study The biased was extremely minimized by use of right design Analysis of finding was so accurate The conclusion drawn from the investigations relates to analysis and data This study led to increased understanding of Safewards Model implementation and benefits Kinner (2016) Presentation of research question was performed and acknowledged the significance of study Randomized Control Trial was used effectively No form of biasedness recorded due to right design The analysis was precise and informed the conclusion effectively The deduction drawn from the review is a clear reflection of data and analysis More understanding of Safewards Model was attributed to this study Mustafa (2015) Correct research question presented and recognized the need for Safewards Model The study was about therapy and hence the author correctly used RCT There was no biasness in the investigation due to right design Truthful and factual analysis was done The deduction was on the basis of data and analysis Much comprehension of Safewards Model application including its potential benefits to reduce conflicts were presented correctly () Price et al. (2016) Precise research question presented RCT correctly applied The degree of bias was highly minimized Accuracy of analysis was guaranteed based on facts and reviewed literature Authors drew correct conclusion from data and analysis The authors presented clear understanding of Safewards Model as a result of this study Well et al. (2015) A clear and explorative question presented Being a therapy, Randomized Control Trial was applied effectively Authors prevented any form of bias Accuracy was ensured during the analysis arising from factual data The conclusion was built from data and analysis of the information gathered on Safewards Model One can really get to understand the Safewards Model from this study and hence greatly contributed to the understanding of the Model (Well et al. (2015)) The table above presents the summary of the critical appraisal done for the seven articles included for this study. It uses six criteria to appraise each articles. These included research question presentation, contribution (relevance), use of correct design (correct study type), whether the design eliminates/minimize bias, accurate analysis and whether the conclusion arise from data and analysis. Each of the seven sources are listed in the first column with subsequent columns highlighting each of the above criteria for each source Summary Findings Increased Uptake of Safewards Model The review revealed an increasing success in the implementation of Safewards Model as many facilities are embracing it and integrating it in their facilities. The increasing Safewards Model is wholly organized by the mental health service staff and this is a typical evidence of value put on Safewards by staff engaged with its implementation (Kinner et al. 2016). Across the seven studies, this theme was evident as many mental health facilities embrace Safewards for effective engagement between nurses and patients. Safewards Enhance Mental Health culture and Atmosphere There was a consensus throughout these seven articles regarding the above theme. The evaluation of the use of Safewards suggests that the model can contribute immensely in enhancing the culture as well as atmosphere in the mental health service (Kinner et al. 2016). Unlike before where mental health services witnessed high levels of conflict events including violence, aggression as well as absconding. These cases are no longer experienced with full implementation of Safewards (Mustafa 2015). Nurses no longer need to use the restrictive practices as Safewards has improved the safety for everyone including the mental health staff, visitors as well as consumers (Bowers 2013). It appears from the review that the both staff and consumers of this Model reported that it reduces conflict as well as enhanced communication. The model also impacts on the decrease of the utilization of restrictive interventions (Hallett and Dickens 2015). The implementation of the Model has improved the local se rvice delivery. Safewards Decrease Conflicts It was a common theme from the seven articles this model has greatly reduced conflicts between nurses and mentally ill patients. It is for this reason that the model is being promoted through the social media as a new set of intervention to nurses that have been proved to greatly decrease the conflict within the inpatient environment. The new Safewards Model is anchored on the years of research by Len Bowers (Bowers 2015). The findings, presentations, training aids as well as guidance remain freely available (Bowers et al. 2014). The Safewards Model is built on the backdrop of a research that examined the potential harmful events including the aggression, rule breaking substance utilization, medication refusal, absconding as well as self-harm alongside the identified most effective means of containing such negative events (Kinner et al. 2016). Whereas acknowledging that there is never a single response that certain variables are outside any persons control, the Safewards Model identi fies 10 possible interventions that are the most efficient as well as effective means of controlling such adverse events and have been proved to really make a difference (Kinner et al. 2016). Safewards have immensely eliminated the use of restrain and rapid tranquilization It was also a common them from the literature that such interventions as simple as establishing precise mutual prospects, utilizing soft-words, bad-news mitigation, and mutual assistance as well as growing the mutual-understanding, utilizing calm-down approaches as well as the provision of reassurance-strategies nurses utilize in their routine activities (Kinner et al. 2016) were effective in improving client engagement. Together with increasing the utilization of these techniques, it was found that using Safewards Model interventions reduced many the most disliked intervention like restraint, rapid tranquilization and hence the outcome is that conflict on wards declined by over 14.60% and containment activities declined by 23.60%. Such findings remain substantially significant and the nurses are increasingly becoming keen to encourage the service providers including, ward managers as well as the broader team to adopt the Safewards Model and apply it to their individual wards. All th e evidence points towards Safewards beneficial importance to both staff and also consumers (Kinner et al. 2016). Discussion: Under this section, I will discuss the following main points: how Safewards Model is more inclusive as it explicates conflicts behavior and containment mechanism; and what is needed to be done for effective implementation of Safewards Model; How Safewards Model is more inclusive as it explicates conflicts behavior and containment mechanism; The Model Seeks to explicate all the conflict behaviors as well as all containment mechanisms together. Safewards model is hence more all-inclusive compared to disjointed models for absconding and aggression among others and recognizes the presently firmly empirically-proven correlation between them (Kinner et al. 2016). Safewards depicts the bidirectional connection between containment and conflict and hence indicates that the utilization of containment inspired by the urge to bar upcoming conflict is able, to certain incidence, cause such a conflict (Long, Afford, Harris and Dolley 2016). The Model, hence, permits discrete interventions that decrease containment without having to influence the rates of the conflicts like the several seclusions as well as limit reduction initiatives in many economies globally. In deriving the difference between the originating-domains as well as the flashpoints, Safewards Model outlines the pressures generated by regular operations of the inpatient units which are in fact the very intrinsic to it, as well as illustrating how such results are more focused and time-located flashpoints (Long, Afford, Harris and Dolley 2016). The standalone originating domains identification as well as flashpoints permits clearer ideas regarding what can and cannot be altered by the clinical-staff working in such wards, and hence facilitate the production of philosophies for rational alteration which have potential for the reduction of containment and conflicts (Long, Afford, Harris and Dolley 2016). The Safewards Model further results in important novel regards to the fore. Patients-patient interactions, for first-time, are extremely regarded and added in the explications fir containment alongside conflict rates (Bowers 2014). Whereas patient physiognomies as well as symptoms have been broadly reported in the past as the triggers of conflict besides containment, the Model recognizes treatment as the operative and efficient safety-generating approach, and identifies that the manner staff respond to their corresponding consumers features will substantially influence on the capacity to result to actual conflict and containment incidences. The outside structure/regulatory framework alongside its corresponding characteristics are identified, for the first-time, as the originating-domain for both conflict alongside containment in such wards (Bowers 2014). What is needed to be done for effective implementation of Safewards Model? There are things that the staff can do when undertaking the implementation of such structures which have the significant potential to decrease the risk of conflict as well as containment. Nevertheless, Safewards Model further illustrates some actions capable of being taken at the uppermost policy degrees that can culminate in wars which are increasingly safer for consumers and staff (Cox, Campbell, and Dalton 2016). Furthermore, the Model integrates impacts on the behavior of the patients from the external environment thereby offering novel understandings hence new means of intervention (Bowers 2014). Whereas the significance of physical-environment has effectively been examined by the other researchers, the Model goes beyond the unsophisticated recommendations of development in quality to clearly describe physical characteristics of wards and the corresponding impacts on patient and staff safety. Implication: Under the implication, I will discusses the implication of Safewards to three different areas; healthcare practice, education and future research. The following subheading provides a detailed discussions on each of the three areas. Healthcare Practice The Model has clear and precise implication for conflict alongside containment reduction to staff. The unhidden implication to staff is that any intervention which may result in alterations to the psychological understanding, emotional regulation, increased commitment, teamwork skills, technical mastery, building positive appreciation as well as effective structure of wards is probably to account for the reduction of the conflict as well as containment rates (Bowers 2014). The option strategy is to stress on acknowledged flashpoints, obtaining better means to manage them effectively (Bowers 2014). The flashpoints remain the social-locations in wards which are highly probably to cause conflict, the interactions between staff and consumers whereby the ward-structure is created, reaffirmed, established as well as instantiated (Bowers 2014). Taking a modest illustration, rather than waiting for the patients to bump at office door, nurses can pre-empty requests by walking around the ward and subsequently enquiring patients what they require/ want prior. Education The implication to education calls for finding the best ways and competencies to understand the patient physiognomies. The dependable connections to younger age as well as male gender demonstrate that much conflict and resultant containment is around insurrection, power, and independence (Bowers 2014). All these remain greatly noticeable matters for men and/or the fledgling individuals. This points that education should be focused on finding proper ways to improve choices, freedom as well as avoiding control of consumers over their diagnosis will help in the reduction of both conflict alongside battles with staff hence better engagement (Bowers 2014). Attempts in education should focus on how to engage patients and nurses to accomplish a reciprocally respectful partnership between the duos as this will do much to prevent conflict arising from such matters (Bowers 2014). Future Research The future research should also be adjusted towards the appreciation of the link between conflict and containment to diseases and symptoms that further carries serious lessons. . The future research should inform the choices when responding to patients to make sure that only better responses are given to help in the enhancement of patients coping strategy to prevent adverse responses that will only increase the patients stress thereby eliciting yet more symptoms (Paton et al. 2016) which can be a barrier in the recovery process. References Bowers, L., 2013. The safewards model and cluster Rct. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 22, p.1. Bowers, L., 2014. A model of de-escalation: Len Bowers provides advice, based on the latest research, on the safest way for staff to deal with conflict and aggression. Mental Health Practice, 17(9), pp.36-37. Bowers, L., 2014. Safewards: a new model of conflict and containment on psychiatric wards. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 21(6), pp.499-508. Bowers, L., 2015. Safewards. Bowers, L., Alexander, J., Bilgin, H., Botha, M., Dack, C., James, K., Jarrett, M., Jeffery, D., Nijman, H., Owiti, J.A. and Papadopoulos, C., 2014. Safewards: the empirical basis of the model and a critical appraisal. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 21(4), pp.354-364. Bowers, L., James, K., Quirk, A., Simpson, A., Stewart, D. and Hodsoll, J., 2015. Reducing conflict and containment rates on acute psychiatric wards: The Safewards cluster randomised controlled trial. International journal of nursing studies, 52(9), pp.1412-1422. Cox, L., Campbell, C. and Dalton, J., 2016. Teaching the safewards model in a bachelor of nursing program. Australian Nursing and Midwifery Journal, 23(11), p.49. Goulet, M.H., Larue, C. and Dumais, A., 2017. Evaluation of seclusion and restraint reduction programs in mental health: A systematic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior. Hallett, N. and Dickens, G.L., 2015. De?escalation: A survey of clinical staff in a secure mental health inpatient service. International journal of mental health nursing, 24(4), pp.324-333. Kinner, S.A., Harvey, C., Hamilton, B., Brophy, L., Roper, C., McSherry, B. and Young, J.T., 2016. Attitudes towards seclusion and restraint in mental health settings: findings from a large, community-based survey of consumers, carers and mental health professionals. Epidemiology and psychiatric sciences, pp.1-10. Kinner, S.A., Harvey, C., Hamilton, B., Brophy, L., Roper, C., McSherry, B. and Young, J.T., 2016. Attitudes towards seclusion and restraint in mental health settings: findings from a large, community-based survey of consumers, carers and mental health professionals. Epidemiology and psychiatric sciences, pp.1-10. Long, C.G., Afford, M., Harris, R. and Dolley, O., 2016. Training in de-escalation: an effective alternative to restrictive interventions in a secure service for women. Journal of Psychiatric Intensive Care, 12(1), pp.11-18. Mustafa, F.A., 2015. The Safewards study lacks rigour despite its randomised design. International journal of nursing studies, 52(12), pp.1906-1907. Parish, C., 2013. Mental health model cuts conflict in acute settings: Professor explains how staff can implement interventions to make wards happier places. Parish, C., 2016. Len Bowers: the man behind the Safewards model: The professor of nursing, whose approach to care has found worldwide popularity, talks to Colin Parish about his experiences along a career path he could not have predicted. Mental Health Practice, 19(5), pp.37-40. Paton, F., Wright, K., Ayre, N., Dare, C., Johnson, S., Lloyd-Evans, B., Simpson, A., Webber, M. and Meader, N., 2016. Improving outcomes for people in mental health crisis: a rapid synthesis of the evidence for available models of care. Health Technologyl Assessment, 20(3). Price, O., Burbery, P., Leonard, S.J. and Doyle, M., 2016. Evaluation of Safewards in forensic mental health: analysis of a multicomponent intervention intended to reduce levels of conflict and containment in inpatient mental health settings. Mental Health Practice, 19(8), pp.14-21. Well, E., First, F., Dignity, P., it Out, W. and Training, C.B., 2015. Evaluation of safewards in forensic mental health. Mental Health Practice, 19(8).
Friday, April 10, 2020
Virtu and Fortuna Virtu and Fortuna Under close scrutiny, The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli is seen to be a mind-baffling construct of many levels of meaning, and, many might say, enigmatically so. It is hard to determine where Machiavelli is writing in earnest and where in sarcasm or self-condemnation. As John Plamenatz says, the perverse Machiavelli "likes to make himself out worse than he is. He likes at times to shock his contemporaries..." No doubt he succeeds. The important message here, though, is that the reader can never be positive of Machiavelli's real views. The same is true in considering the significance of the terms virtu and fortuna (and their several translations), so often used by Machiavelli to drive home his points. But by looking at many possibilities for their frequent and seemingly suggestive usages, and at some of the ancient thought with which Machiavelli was supremely familiar, we can arrive at a satisfactory speculation, we can discuss the web weaved by Machiavelli in his profes! sions. The first, most obvious purpose of The Prince is stated by the author himself, addressing Lorenzo de' Medici: If you will read [this book] over and study it carefully, you will recognize in it my most earnest desire that you may achieve that summit of grandeur to which your happy destiny and your other capacities predestine you. And if from that summit Your Magnificence will occasionally glance down at these humble places, you will recognize how unjustly I suffer the bitter and sustained malignity of fortune. Clearly there is a sizeable amount of cajolery occurring here (and also foreshadows the following discussion of fortune and virtue), and this same stroking of Lorenzo's ego continues through the book, with slight references to how fit to rule this prince is, how "virtuous," how fated to be the incredible Prince for whom Machiavelli writes. It could easily be said that with this book the author may have trying to ingratiate himself to all the local nobility; on the other hand, knowing what follows might also suggest that Machiavelli was really attempting to play off the nobility's fears of chaos and insecurity, guaranteeing safety if they read his short piece. The second possible purpose--definitely an outcome--is the creation of a learned historical discourse. I will leave out examples; it suffices to say that The Prince encompasses many centuries of human history, many deeply researched examples of politico-military events, and so on. True, they serve enforce his ideas on "virtuous government," but they also seve the modern historian in his search for original sources. A third possible purpose of The Prince might be to outline the ideal government or, if not the ideal, the most virtuous or the best possible. It is in this purpose, the same goal pursued by countless political thinkers in history, that we extract much of what the current age considers Machiavellian. The lord most would consider ruthless and cold, but whom Machiavelli names a virtuoso, is but one (probably Cesare Borgia, son of Sixtus IV) character in the book. The author's supposedly cruel way of equating bad with good is traditionally what has gotten him into hot water. The fact is, however, that Machiavelli never truly addresses the issues of bad and good, right and wrong, these absolute judgments most people would, I think, claim him to make. Machiavelli, in laying out the "best" government, does so from a completely political and pragmatic point of view, by what works, what is possible, and, really, what for his prince results in the most power and security. The auth! or carries out this investigation using two parameters in particular, the Italian virtu and fortuna. They can be translated in many ways (Robert M. Adams has done it very nicley so I shall not repeat them here) which is part of what gives the book its depth. In general, though, the spirit Machiavelli attaches to these two crucial words resembles the following. Virtu embodies a paragon or paradigm; the virtuous man takes action, he anticipates and exhibits resolve, shrewdness and aptitude. Above all, he commits himself to politically sound, whole-hearted efforts. Politics here reign supreme; while he does acknowledge that there are ideals in the world, he asserts that it is futile to discuss them because
Monday, March 9, 2020
For companies that are planning to globalize, they must have a strategy and plan for operations. To recap, Pyramid has lost a large amount of market share since the 9/11 tragedies and airline downsizing. Their ground proximity warning system was the Ã¢â¬Å"Mercedes BenzÃ¢â¬ of the industry. And airlines do not want to expend the money when they can purchase a comparable product cheaper from Tyco or Honeywell. Pyramid has decided to enter a joint venture with Siemens and relocate their manufacturing plant to Mexico. This paper will cover the mode of entry and explain human resources management, supply chain management, information technology, research and development, and finally, address any ethical issues pertaining to PyramidÃ¢â¬â¢s products and services. Pyramid Enterprise has previously established entry into the aerospace market with their ground proximity warning system. Pyramid Enterprises first started in the aerospace business 1964. Their decision to embark on a new joint venture with Siemens has been previously discussed and justified. The critical question is how will this joint venture enable Pyramid to win back the market share that they have lost and to expand in a mature and competitive market place? Pyramid has seen its sales and customer base drop by 38% since September 11, 2001. As discussed earlier, the airlines have seen tremendous losses and are looking for the lowest priced Ground Proximity Warning System. Brand loyalty due to quality and reliability has been replaced with bottom-line economic decisions. Therefore, Pyramids challenge is to develop a strategy that will not only win back their previous customer base but to find ways to expand their presence in the aerospace market. The joint venture with Siemens will allow Pyramid to do both. As a result of the joint venture with Siemens, operating costs will be reduced by 25%. This will enable Pyramid to reduce the price for their Ground Proximity Warning System and to u... Free Essays on Global Strategy And Operations Free Essays on Global Strategy And Operations For companies that are planning to globalize, they must have a strategy and plan for operations. To recap, Pyramid has lost a large amount of market share since the 9/11 tragedies and airline downsizing. Their ground proximity warning system was the Ã¢â¬Å"Mercedes BenzÃ¢â¬ of the industry. And airlines do not want to expend the money when they can purchase a comparable product cheaper from Tyco or Honeywell. Pyramid has decided to enter a joint venture with Siemens and relocate their manufacturing plant to Mexico. This paper will cover the mode of entry and explain human resources management, supply chain management, information technology, research and development, and finally, address any ethical issues pertaining to PyramidÃ¢â¬â¢s products and services. Pyramid Enterprise has previously established entry into the aerospace market with their ground proximity warning system. Pyramid Enterprises first started in the aerospace business 1964. Their decision to embark on a new joint venture with Siemens has been previously discussed and justified. The critical question is how will this joint venture enable Pyramid to win back the market share that they have lost and to expand in a mature and competitive market place? Pyramid has seen its sales and customer base drop by 38% since September 11, 2001. As discussed earlier, the airlines have seen tremendous losses and are looking for the lowest priced Ground Proximity Warning System. Brand loyalty due to quality and reliability has been replaced with bottom-line economic decisions. Therefore, Pyramids challenge is to develop a strategy that will not only win back their previous customer base but to find ways to expand their presence in the aerospace market. The joint venture with Siemens will allow Pyramid to do both. As a result of the joint venture with Siemens, operating costs will be reduced by 25%. This will enable Pyramid to reduce the price for their Ground Proximity Warning System and to u...
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Pedagogy and Curriculum Primary - Essay Example The study of mathematics is also of particular importance in the education curriculum as a whole. Mathematics offers learners with a chance to excel in other areas of interest in the curriculum. Since mathematics is wide and exciting, students of all ages, interests and capabilities. The study of mathematics enables the learner to develop skills of critical thought, analysis, problem solution, ingenuity and the capacity to think about theoretical concepts. Mathematics employs a system of numbers and symbols that permit for universal communication of ideas in a precise, explicit and accurate way. In order to be able to confront the challenges of a fast developing world, every person requires a thorough knowledge of mathematics (Donaldson, 2008). Mathematics provides learners with a myriad of skills which are necessary for work, living and education. A comprehension of the significance of mathematics in life is of utmost importance. This calls for the acknowledgement that Mathematics i s elemental throughout a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life and as such it should be treated as such. ... It is prerequisite for all teachers who are charged with the development of mathematical skills to familiarise themselves with the function of numeracy in mathematics and the methods that are used to develop numerical capacities in the wide variety of experiences for learners (The Scottish Government 2007). The experiences and outcomes in mathematics are segmented into three major sections; measure, number and money; movement, shape and position; and the analysis of information. The framework stresses the significance of mathematics at present and in future in the societal development and in its applicability in daily living. An elemental aspect of the mathematics framework involves developing algebraic thinking in young learners. This is informed by studies which conclude that an early introduction to algebraic thinking makes learners be more attuned to mathematical understanding and also results to learner confidence in tackling mathematical problems (The Scottish Government 2007). Experiences and outcomes will be invaluable in the practical aspects of teaching since they show how mathematics is used in real life situations such as gambling and probability. These experiences and outcomes will enable learners see the practicality of attaining mathematical skills for life decisions. Aspects of Effectual Teaching and Learning in the Mathematics Framework From the start of young people starting to learn, it is important that teachers make learners have success in mathematics. This should be done through developing their self-confidence so that they are able to accept risks, query, and be creative enough to investigate different methods devoid of the apprehension of being incorrect. Learners who are not afraid of being wrong will be able to explore and will enjoy the